we focuses on the synthesis, processing, consolidation and applications of rare earth nano-particles.we had developed various methods to synthesize these nano-particles in the oxide, nitride, sulfate and carbide forms. These methods include sol gel, precipitation, plasma spraying, flame spraying and electrostatic atomisation.
Despite their name, rare earth elements are relatively plentiful in the Earth's crust, with cerium being the 25th most abundant element at 68 parts per million. However, because of their geochemical properties, rare earth elements are not often found in concentrated and economically exploitable forms, generally called rare earth minerals. It was the very scarcity of these minerals that led to the term "rare earth". The first such mineral discovered was gadolinite, a mixture of cerium, ytterbium, iron, silica, and other elements. This mineral was extracted from a mine in the village of Ytterby, Sweden; many of the elements bear names derived from this location.
The principal economic sources of rare earths are the minerals bastnasite, monazite, and loparite and the lateritic ion-adsorption clays.
The rare earths are a relatively abundant group of 17 elements composed of scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides. The elements range in crustal abundance from cerium, the 25th most abundant element of the 78 common elements in the Earth's crust at 60 parts per million, to thulium and lutetium, the least abundant rare-earth elements at about 0.5 part per million.
The elemental forms of rare earths are iron gray to silvery lustrous metals that are typically soft, malleable, and ductile and usually reactive, especially at elevated temperatures or when finely divided. The rare earths' unique properties are used in a wide variety of applications.
rare earth applications are ubiquitous and enabling in almost all sophisticated weapon and communication systems the US defense agencies has or will deploy in the future.
metallurgy, glass ceramics, agricultural uses, new materials, permanent magnets, polishing powders, hydrogen storage alloy powders,fluorescent powders, catalysts.